Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and neuronal damage. Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is a human DNA herpesvirus infecting more than 90% of the world's population. EBV is the etiological agent of infectious mononucleosis (Pfeiffer's disease). Major predisposing factors for MS are certain tissue types (e.g., HLA DRB1*15:01), vitamin D deficiency, smoking, obesity, and infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This review summarizes current knowledge on the association between EBV and MS.