Document Type : Original Article


1 School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical sciences

2 Basic Sciences Department, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences


Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a cognitive and behavioral disease with mood fluctuation  . The 6th global problem is in adults. Disease susceptibility is affected through genetic factors, the epigenetic process marked the disease phenotype. On the other hand, the importance of DNA methylation in some neurobiological and cognitive activities such as brain development processes and activity includes psychiatric diseases like BD. Numerous long intergenic noncoding RNAs were found that regulate gene expression of several diseases and are involved in the brain and cognitive development as well as psychiatric disorders such as BD.
Despite advances in neuropsychological or biological markers discoveries which predict personalized treatment efficacy,   the clinical history and exhibition are careful and predictable markers for patient categorizing and treatment management. The aim of individualized medicine is to find vulnerability or preservative factors through genetic change.
Genetic, epigenetic factors, imaging, psychopathology and biomarkers can affect new treatments. Various studies such as family, twin, and adoption studies , linkage analysis indicated the association of HPA axis genes with vulnerability to BD. Personalized medicine applications in psychiatry focus on descriptive psychopathology and phenomenology via precise analysis and attention to each patient’s impaired brain and mood processes.
The precision medicine studies concentrate on response to lithium, main treatment of BD  , frequent mood diseases , antidepressant resistant prediction ,risk and outcome assessment. Precision medicine is a hopeful way to develop new treatments based on individual genetic features. Personalized medicine in psychiatric disorder is in the infancy phases, but promising approaches were developed for complex diseases treatment with human genome sequencing.