Document Type : Review Article


1 Msc molecular Genetics, Islamic Azad university Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 School of Paramedical Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran



Humans are continuously exposed to a wide of carcinogenic and mutagenic stimuli, including environmental toxins, radiation and viruses as well as other infections. Tumor metastasis is responsible for approximately 9% of all cancer related deaths. The tumor microenvironment (TME) contains many distinct cell types, including endothelial cells and their precursors, pericytes, smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, carcinoma-associated fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells, T and B lymphocytes, natural killer cells and antigen presenting cells (APC) such as macrophages and dendritic cells. Recent evidence has shown that stromal tissue is much more than a passive bystander in the development and progression of cancers. None the lese,the clinical therapy for many types of human cancers has mainly focused on the malignant cancer cell itself, and have made great achievements, yet cancer therapy still remains a great challenge. This review highlights the evidence for the crucial role of the tumor microenvironment in tumor progression and metastasis.