Document Type : Original Article
1 Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Islamic Azad University of East Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, East Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Islamic Azad University of East Tehran, Tehran, Iran
4 Department of Biology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Islamic Azad University of East Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
Due to the lack of reliable biomarkers and a thorough understanding of the etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS), the treatment strategy in MS requires a personalized medicine framework that goes beyond the precision medicine idea. A patient-centered approach is necessary for personalized treatment, and the identification of pathophysiological processes should be employed to help classify diseases. Intracellular aspartic proteinase-A enzyme is expressed by the APR1 gene and is one of the important factors in the development of systemic candidiasis caused by Candida albicans. The aim of this study was molecular detection of fungal DNA in serum of MS patients and to evaluate the expression of the APR1 gene in C. Albicans isolates obtained from patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and controls. The samples were obtained from 100 MS patients with candidiasis and 100 matched controls of healthy individuals during 2018 - 2019. The evaluation of APR1 gene expression was performed using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. There was a statistically significant difference in APR1 gene expression of C. Albicans strains between MS patients (mean± SD: 0.5008 ± 0.09518) and the control group (mean± SD: 0.7513±0.10505) (P = 0.000). The mean values of EDSS were 1.4074 ± 0.0082 after antifungal treatment and 2.0519 ± 0.1123 before antifungal treatment (P = 0.000). Differences in active fungal infection between patients and controls indicate the importance and possible role of fungi in MS patients. The results suggested that APR1 gene expression in C. Albicans strains isolated from MS patients may be an important factor for invasive C. Albicans strains in the progression of MS disease. Because fungal infections in the serum causes more activity of the body’s immune and defense system and directly affect the activity of the immune system, it further destroys the central nervous system.