Document Type : Review Article
1 Department of Genetic science, Faculty of Basic science, University of Azad eslami branch of Damghan, Iran.
2 Department of Cell and Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Science and Technology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
Kallikrein related peptidases (KLKs) are a group of serine-like proteases such as chemo trypsin and trypsin, which are regulated by steroid hormones and play a vital role in a variety of natural and physiological functions through their proteolytic activity. However, involvement of these proteases has been reported in many pathological conditions, such as various types of malignancies. Deregulation of the expression of genes encoding kallikrein, including KLK2, is often associated with many types of cancer, in particular prostate cancer. This review provides an overview of the gene and protein structures and function of KLKs particularly, KLK2, at the molecular level, and also summarizes the role of KLK2 in the pathobiology of prostate cancer and the possible mechanisms involved in its progression. Finally, the importance of this protein is studied as a specific diagnostic marker along with PSA marker as well as therapeutic target of KLK2 in treatment of prostate cancer. A comprehensive understanding the structure and activity of this protein in prostate cancer can provide a valuable tool for future clinical practice that can be used to evaluate the clinical outcome and select the most appropriate treatment strategy. The critical role of KLK2 in promoting cell growth, migration, metastasis, angiogenesis and inhibiting apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, suggests KLK2 as the second diagnostic biomarker along with PSA with high specificity.