Document Type : Review Article


1 Biotechnology Research Center, Islamic Azad University, East-Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Young Researchers and Elite Club, Shahrekord Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shahrekord, Iran.



In the twenty-first century, there still needs more clarity on rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Rheumatoid arthritis is a widespread but heterogeneous illness with a broad range in its history, clinical symptoms, and response to therapy. It is now known that prevention of joint destruction, functional impairment, and a poor disease prognosis depends on early, correct diagnosis and starting therapy with disease-modifying drugs (DMARDs), among which methotrexate (MTX) remains the gold standard in the treatment of RA. Early rheumatoid arthritis diagnosis is crucial since it enables a speedier start to primary therapy. Pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic research, which aid in identifying a patient’s genetic profile, may bring personalized treatment closer to reality. Identifying disease-specific genes while the organism’s resistance to them is still intact should be made feasible by further study into RA.