Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of biomedical engineering, Faculty of engineering, Maziar university, Royan, Iran

2 Build Goal Health, Inc Ceo & Founder, Los Angles, California, United States.


It has been known for quite some time that gut microbiota plays an important role in human health and illness. Recent years have seen a surge in interest in the human gut microbiota, and the advent of metagenomic investigations has greatly aided our understanding of the resident species and their potential uses. The human digestive tract is home to billions of bacteria, making up the varied gut microbiota. At birth, the gut microbiome begins to take shape and proliferate, and throughout life, numerous genetic, dietary, and environmental variables will shape and multiply this community. Alterations to the gut microbiota's structure and function may affect digestion, metabolism, and the immune system. Meanwhile, personalized medicine, a new therapeutic approach, has opened a new door in the medical sciences, and the link between the microbiome and personalized medicine is one of the most intriguing areas of study going forward. Since the link between this two axis is new, there are few research on it. Therefore, in this review study, the relationship between the gut microbiome, drug interactions, disease progression, and personalized medicine has been discussed.


1. Feng, W., Liu, J., Ao, H., Yue, S., & Peng, C. Targeting 
gut microbiota for precision medicine: Focusing on the 
efficacy and toxicity of drugs. Theranostics. 2020 ; 10(24), 
2.Budnitz, D. S., Lovegrove, M. C., & Crosby, A. 
E. Emergency department visits for overdoses of 
acetaminophen-containing products. American journal of 
preventive medicine. 2011 ; 40(6), 585-592.
3.Behrouzi, A., Nafari, A. H., & Siadat, S. D. The significance 
of microbiome in personalized medicine. Clinical and 
translational medicine. 2019 ; 8, 1-9.
4.Hisada, T., Endoh, K., & Kuriki, K. Inter-and intraindividual variations in seasonal and daily stabilities 
of the human gut microbiota in Japanese. Archives of 
microbiology. 2015 ; 197, 919-934.
5.Qin, J., Li, R., Raes, J., Arumugam, M., Burgdorf, K. S., 
Manichanh, C., ... & Wang, J. A human gut microbial gene 
catalogue established by metagenomic sequencing. nature. 
2010 ; 464(7285), 59-65.
6.Scheline, R. R. Metabolism of foreign compounds by 
gastrointestinal microorganisms. Pharmacological 
reviews. 1973 ; 25(4), 451-523.
7.Amedei, A., & Boem, F. I’ve gut a feeling: microbiota 
impacting the conceptual and experimental perspectives of 
personalized medicine. International journal of molecular 
sciences. 2018 ; 19(12), 3756.
8. Li, H., He, J., & Jia, W. The influence of gut microbiota 
on drug metabolism and toxicity. Expert opinion on drug 
metabolism & toxicology. 2016 ; 12(1), 31-40.
9. Di, L. The role of drug metabolizing enzymes in 
clearance. Expert opinion on drug metabolism & 
toxicology. 2014 ; 10(3), 379-393.
10.Cho, I., & Blaser, M. J. The human microbiome: at the 
interface of health and disease. Nature Reviews Genetics. 
2012 ; 13(4), 260-270.
11.Li, H., & Jia, W. Cometabolism of microbes and host: 
implications for drug metabolism and drug‐induced 
toxicity. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2013 
; 94(5), 574-581.
12.Currò, D.The role of gut microbiota in the modulation 
of drug action: a focus on some clinically significant 
issues. Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology. 2018; 
11(2), 171-183.
13.Brochado, A. R., Telzerow, A., Bobonis, J., Banzhaf, M., 
Mateus, A., Selkrig, J., ... & Typas, A. Species-specific 
activity of antibacterial drug combinations. Nature. 2018 
; 559(7713), 259-263.
14.Nakayama, H., Kinouchi, T., Kataoka, K., Akimoto, 
S., Matsuda, Y., & Ohnishi, Y. Intestinal anaerobic 
Tahereh Mehdizadeh et al Pers M J
bacteria hydrolyse sorivudine, producing the high blood 
concentration of 5-(E)-(2-bromovinyl) uracil that increases 
the level and toxicity of 5-fluorouracil. Pharmacogenetics. 
1997 ; 7(1), 35-43.
15.Hanahan, D.Hallmarks of cancer: A 2012 
perspective. Annals of oncology, 23, ix23. 2012.
16.Contreras, A. V., Cocom-Chan, B., Hernandez-Montes, 
G., Portillo-Bobadilla, T., & Resendis-Antonio, O. Hostmicrobiome interaction and cancer: potential application 
in precision medicine. Frontiers in physiology. 2016 ; 7, 
17.Debunne, N., Wynendaele, E., Janssens, Y., De Spiegeleer, 
A., Verbeke, F., Tack, L., ... & De Spiegeleer, B. The 
quorum sensing peptide EntF* promotes colorectal cancer 
metastasis in mice: a new factor in the microbiome-host 
interaction. BioRxiv. 2020 ; 2020-09.
18.Kong, C., Liang, L., Liu, G., Du, L., Yang, Y., Liu, J., ... & 
Ma, Y. Integrated metagenomic and metabolomic analysis 
reveals distinct gut-microbiome-derived phenotypes in 
early-onset colorectal cancer. Gut. 2023; 72(6), 1129-1142.
19.Marion, S. A. M. Biogeography and biochemistry of 
bile acid 7-dehydroxylation in the mammalian gut (No. 
THESIS). EPFL. 2020.
20.Quast, C., Pruesse, E., Yilmaz, P., Gerken, J., Schweer, 
T., Yarza, P., ... & Glöckner, F. O. The SILVA ribosomal 
RNA gene database project: improved data processing and 
web-based tools. Nucleic acids research. 2012; 41(D1), 
21.Portincasa, P., Bonfrate, L., Vacca, M., De Angelis, M., 
Farella, I., Lanza, E., ... & Di Ciaula, A. Gut microbiota 
and short chain fatty acids: implications in glucose 
homeostasis. International journal of molecular sciences. 
2022 ; 23(3), 1105.
22.Aderinto, N., & Olatunji, G. D. The role of microbiome 
analysis in precision medicine and personalized 
nutrition for improving health outcomes in Africa: a 
correspondence. IJS Global Health. 2023 ; 6(3), e137.
23.Li, X., Guo, J., Ji, K., & Zhang, P. Bamboo shoot 
fiber prevents obesity in mice by modulating the gut 
microbiota. Scientific reports. 2016 ; 6(1), 32953.
24.Baker, J. L., Shriner, D., Bentley, A. R., & Rotimi, C. N. 
Pharmacogenomic implications of the evolutionary history 
of infectious diseases in Africa. The pharmacogenomics 
journal. 2017 ; 17(2), 112-120.
25.Lu, Y., Yuan, X., Wang, M., He, Z., Li, H., Wang, J., & 
Li, Q. Gut microbiota influence immunotherapy responses: 
mechanisms and therapeutic strategies. Journal of 
hematology & oncology. 2022 ; 15(1), 47.
26.Stancu A. L. Gut Microbiome and the Response to 
Immunotherapy in Cancer. Discoveries (Craiova, 
Romania). 2018 ; 6(3), e84.
27.Davidovics, Z. H., Michail, S., Nicholson, M. R., Kociolek, 
L. K., Pai, N., Hansen, R., Schwerd, T., Maspons, A., 
Shamir, R., Szajewska, H., Thapar, N., de Meij, T., Mosca, 
A., Vandenplas, Y., Kahn, S. A., Kellermayer, R., & FMT 
Special Interest Group of the North American Society 
of Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology, Nutrition, 
the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology 
Hepatology, Nutrition Fecal Microbiota Transplantation 
for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection and Other 
Conditions in Children: A Joint Position Paper From the 
North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, 
Hepatology, and Nutrition and the European Society 
for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and 
Nutrition. Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and 
nutrition. 2019 ; 68(1), 130–143.
28.Cristofori, F., Dargenio, V. N., Dargenio, C., Miniello, 
V. L., Barone, M., & Francavilla, R. Anti-Inflammatory 
and Immunomodulatory Effects of Probiotics in 
Gut Inflammation: A Door to the Body. Frontiers in 
immunology. 2021 ; 12, 578386.
29.El-Sayed, A., Aleya, L., & Kamel, M. The link 
among microbiota, epigenetics, and disease 
development. Environmental Science and Pollution 
Research. 2021 ; 28, 28926-28964.
30.Blanton, L. V., Barratt, M. J., Charbonneau, M. R., Ahmed, 
T., & Gordon, J. I. Childhood undernutrition, the gut 
microbiota, and microbiota-directed therapeutics. Science. 
2016 ; 352(6293), 1533-1533.
31.Rajakovich, L. J., & Balskus, E. P. Metabolic functions 
of the human gut microbiota: the role of metalloenzymes. 
Natural product reports. 2019 ; 36(4), 593-625.
32.Wang, Z., Roberts, A. B., Buffa, J. A., Levison, B. S., Zhu, 
W., Org, E., ... & Hazen, S. L. Non-lethal inhibition of gut 
microbial trimethylamine production for the treatment of 
atherosclerosis. Cell. 2015 ; 163(7), 1585-1595.
33.Marchesi, J. R., Adams, D. H., Fava, F., Hermes, G. 
D., Hirschfield, G. M., Hold, G., ... & Hart, A. The gut 
microbiota and host health: a new clinical frontier. Gut. 
2016 ; 65(2), 330-339.
34.Singh, R. K., Chang, H. W., Yan, D., Lee, K. M., Ucmak, 
D., Wong, K., Abrouk, M., Farahnik, B., Nakamura, M., 
Zhu, T. H., Bhutani, T., & Liao, W. Influence of diet on the 
gut microbiome and implications for human health.Journal 
of translational medicine. 2017 ; 15(1), 73.
35.Zeevi, D., Korem, T., Zmora, N., Israeli, D., Rothschild, 
D., Weinberger, A., ... & Segal, E. Personalized nutrition 
by prediction of glycemic responses. Cell. 2015; 163(5),