Document Type : Review Article


1 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Basic Sciences, East-Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Zoology, The Assam Royal Global University, Guwahati, Assam, India.

3 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Sciences, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran



Despite the well-known high prevalence of failure in drug development, recent advancements in tissue engineering and microfabrication have helped to create microphysiological systems (MPS), or "organs-on-chips," which mimic the function of human organs. These "tissue chips" might be used for toxicity and drug screening tests, which could revolutionize the early phases of the drug development process. Additionally, they may be utilized to simulate disease conditions, supplying new instruments for deciphering disease pathologies and causes and evaluating the efficacy of novel treatments. Future clinical trials on chips might be utilized to assess novel medicines in both populations and individuals, opening the door for precision medicine. Here, we'll discuss tissue chips' diverse potential and the difficulties in developing them.